elements of chemical reaction engineering 4th ed-fogler- solution manual

elements of chemical reaction engineering 4th ed-fogler- solution manual
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elements of chemical reaction engineering 4th ed-fogler- solution manual

The slowest step of this series becomes the rate limiting step (Fogler, 2006). Therefore it is essential to evaluate the mass transfer resistances prior to the study of the reaction kinetics... In inequality (3), C s represents the concentration of the reference species in the reaction medium. The effective diffusion coefficient was defined as equation (4) (Fogler, 2006)... Langmuir-Hinshelwood model applied for the esterification reaction accounts for the adsorption of both reactants, acetic and ethanol followed by the desorption of products, ethyl acetate and water. Therefore equation (8) can be written using fractional coverage terms as in equation (9), where fractional coverage (?) is identified as the fraction of the sites occupied by a particular species from the total number of sites on the catalyst surface (Schwarzer, 2006).. Performance of ion exchange resin as solid catalyst for the esterification of acetic acid with ethanol Article Mar 2016 BANN Bamunusingha ECL De Silva M. Y. Gunasekera Esterification of acetic acid with ethyl alcohol was carried out in the presence of a cation exchange resin. The resin used was Lewatit S1467, which is commercially available at a low cost and used commonly in the water treatment industry. The catalyst pretreated with HCl showed higher acetic acid conversions. The acidic cation exchange resin treated with HCl was examined for catalyst loading, reaction temperature and reusability. The experimental data were fitted with the pseudo homogeneous model, and the heterogeneous models Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley- Rideal (ER). LH model provided a better agreement with the experimental kinetic data, and the activation energy was found to be about 58 kJmol-1. View Show abstract. Knowing catalyst deactivation mechanisms is important to maximize the life of catalysts used. In this article, a comparison of two mathematical models is used to demonstrate the above-mentioned idea.

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The second one utilizes the power of HYSYS trough an OLE automation interface and enhances the equations of the first model... In the first model it was assumed that the coefficients of thermal capacity, reaction enthalpy, and volumetric flow rates do not depend on temperature and composition, and also the heat of mixing and mixing volume can be neglected. Accuracy of mathematical model with regard to safety analysis of chemical reactors Article Jan 2002 CHEM PAP A. Molnar Jozef Markos L’udovit Jelemensky Interest in discovering multiple steady-state solutions for reaction processes grew exponentially by the existence of the first computers. Modern process simulators can find multiple solutions only by the expenditure of much effort. Three mathematical models with different accuracy are introduced and a simple comparison of model's accuracy is made with regard to safety analysis of continuous stirred tank reactor. The first two models are based on standards in chemical reactor design; the third one is an internal model of CSTR in HYSYS simulation program. Furthermore, OLE automation interface is also used to access the existing physical property packages of HYSYS. View Show abstract. Continuous mixing studies previously focused on the influence of process and design variables on the mixing efficiency and flow behavior within mixers (Pernenkil and Cooney, 2006). Multiple models are available in the literature to describe mixing and transport of particles through a continuous mixer (Fogler, 2006). The main limitation of using residence time distribution (RTD) as a predictive tool for mixing performance (Levenspiel, 1999) is its inability to capture micro-mixing... The RTDs were quantitatively assessed by calculating t m, s tm 2 and s u 2 (Eqs. (13)-(15) (Fogler, 2006).

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By treating the boundary condition of the mixer as a closed system with no axial or radial variation in upstream and downstream concentrations to axial dispersion model, Peclet number (Pe) was calculated using equation 16 (Kumar et al., 2014)... Perfectly mixed-flow is described by a continuously stirred tank reactor and for such a system the spread of the normalized RTD curve is equal to one. By contrast, a plug-flow reactor describes a perfectly unmixed system and under this condition the normalized variance is equal to zero (Fogler, 2006). A higher normalized variance indicates better axial mixing conditions.. Continuous direct compression as manufacturing platform for sustained release tablets Article Jan 2017 Bernd van snick J. Holman C. Cunningham Chris Vervaet This study presents a framework for process and product development on a continuous direct compression manufacturing platform. A challenging sustained release formulation with high content of a poorly flowing low density drug was selected. Two HPMC grades were evaluated as matrix former: standard Methocel CR and directly compressible Methocel DC2. The feeding behavior of each formulation component was investigated by deriving feed factor profiles. The maximum feed factor was used to estimate the drive command which strongly depended upon the density of the material. Furthermore, the shape of the feed factor profile allowed definition of a customized refill regime for each material. Inline NIRs was used to estimate the residence time distribution (RTD) in the mixer and monitor blend uniformity. Tablet content and weight variability were determined as additional measures of mixing performance. For CR, the best axial mixing (i.e. feeder fluctuation dampening) was achieved when an impeller with high number of radial mixing blades operated at low speed. However, the variability in tablet weight and content uniformity deteriorated under this condition.

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One can therefore conclude that balancing axial mixing with tablet quality is critical for Methocel CR. However, reformulating with the direct compressible Methocel DC2 as matrix former improved tablet quality vastly. Furthermore, both process and product were significantly more robust to changes in process and design variables. This observation underpins the importance of flowability during continuous blending and die-filling. At the compaction stage, blends with Methocel CR showed better tabletability driven by a higher compressibility as the smaller CR particles have a higher bonding area. However, tablets of similar strength were achieved using Methocel DC2 by targeting equal porosity. Compaction pressure impacted tablet properties and dissolution. Hence controlling thickness during continuous manufacturing of sustained release tablets was crucial to ensure reproducible dissolution. This is why we consider also the optimization with respect to this communication parameter.. Analysis and Optimization of the Chemostat Model with a Lateral Diffusive Compartment Article Full-text available May 2020 J Optim Theor Appl Maria Crespo Alain Rapaport We consider the chemostat model with a side compartment connected by pure diffusion, and analyze its asymptotic properties. We investigate conditions under which this spatial structure is beneficial for species survival and conversion yield, compared to single chemostat. Under these conditions, we study the optimization problem for the best structure (volume distribution and diffusion rate), which minimizes the volume required to attain a desired conversion yield. The analysis reveals that particular configurations with a single tank connected by diffusion to the input stream can be the most efficient. J mol -1 K -1 ) and T is the absolute temperature (K), can be used to determine activation energies. However, peaks of N 2 O, NO 72 and NO 2 were observed during each C 3 H 6 pulse.

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In order to accomplish this, pilot plant tests were carried out followed by spent catalysts characterization. The residual catalytic activity was determined by HDA, HDS and HDN conversions and adjusted by a power law apparent kinetic model. Pilot plant tests revealed different levels of residual activity for spent catalyst samples. Catalyst samples taken from the first and last of the five catalytic beds showed higher deactivation than others. Catalyst characterization results pointed out two mechanisms as the main reason for the catalytic deactivation through the industrial reactor: poisoning by metal deposition (mainly Si and As) and coke deposition. Poisoning was the main deactivation mechanism for the first bed spent catalyst sample, while coke deposition was predominant at the last catalytic bed sample. Reactor temperature was identified as the most important operational parameter considering coke aging. A like Integral Method (Fogler, S.H., 1999) Figure 90 shows a coated sample after the 24 hour corrosion test.. GENERATING CONVERSION COATINGS BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Thesis Full-text available May 2003 John Reye With the enhanced environmental awareness and the renewed importance of environmentally friendly processes, surface pre-treatment processes based on chromates have been targeted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Indeed, this process has been subject to regulations under the Clean Water Act as well as other environmental initiatives, and there is today a marked movement to phase the process out in the near future. Therefore, there is a clear need for new advances in coating technology that could provide practical options for replacing present industrial practices. Depending on the final application, such coatings might be required to be resistant to corrosion, act as chemically resistant coatings, or both.

Using thermal analysis, methods were used to examine a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) mechanism to deposit uniform conversion coatings onto aluminum based substrates. Robust protocols for solutions of aryl phosphate esters and additive were outlined. Multi-oxide conversion coating (nanometer scale) films were successfully grown onto aluminum based samples. These films were primarily characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Preliminary results indicate the potential of this technology to replace chromate-based process. The films have been shown to act as a protective barrier from a corrosive environment and qualitatively show good adhesion properties for paint to adhere to the surface even when mechanical stresses are applied. In principle, the two kinetic parameters (k and n) of the model (Eq. 1) can be uniquely determined applying the differential method (Fogler, 2005; as follows: if conversion x is measured, its estimate y can be obtained in the form of a continuous function. Assuming that the parameters are locally constant, the time derivative of Eq. 1 yields:. Relating the reaction order with the WLF equation: A cyanate ester resin curing reaction as a case example Conference Paper Full-text available Aug 2013 Francisco Lopez-Serrano Jorge E. Puig Eduardo Mendizabal A methodology is presented to obtain a kinetic model for curing reactions from conversion against time and the glass transition temperature versus conversion data. The approach utilizes the conversion measurement time-derivatives which allow following the estimated parameters’ trends: the rate constant and the reaction order, in this case. An autocatalytic model was found and the rate constants were truly constant along the experiments; thus, their Arrhenius parameters were evaluated.

The methodology allowed constructing a master curve relating the variable reaction order with a temperature difference (reaction and glass transition) explained by the WLF equation. Four parameters describing the reaction order variation, two related to an exponential-like behavior and two required by the WLF equation, allowed describing the whole experimental set accurately View Show abstract. The kinetic study of the aromatic sulphonation of PSBR with chlorosulphonic acid was carried out in order to establish the rate of the PSBR sulphonation reaction with chlorosulphonic acid, the activation energy of the process and also to be able to understand the reaction mechanism involved. This is important because the manner in which materials behave within reactors, both chemically and physically, is significant in the design of any chemical process (Fogler, 1992).. SULPHONATION OF SYNTHETIC RUBBER AS AN ALTERNATIVE MEMBRANE FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL Article C. A. Idibie View. Residence time distribution calculations are widely used in Reaction Engineering. The development can be found namely in Levenspiel (1998) and Fogler (2006). An adaptation of these calculations and the integration of the geometrical reality in powder flowing cylindro-conical bins is the basis of the following development.. PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESS ANALYSIS TECHNOLOGIES: RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION OF FLOWING POWDER MIXTURES Article Nicolas Abatzoglou Within the framework of the work on developing Process Analysis Technologies in Dry Pharmaceutical formulation processes, previous publications have demonstrated that the average residence time (RT A) and its standard deviation (RT SD) of each binary powder mixture component in typical bins under flowing conditions can be used for the prediction of the tendency to segregation in such mixtures.

The previous works proposed a qualitative criterion to measure the relative segregation tendency between two components and presented phenomenological quantitative models to calculate the RT A and RT SD as function of the tested variables. Although the above phenomenological models constitute an important step in trying to better understand and predict segregation tendency, there is no link with the intrinsic cohesion properties of the involved particles and the bin characteristics. In this paper a comprehensive mathematical model to calculate the residence time distribution of a component in a flowing particulate system is presented; it proposes a way of taking into account the cohesion characteristics of the powders and the adhesion forces between them and the walls of their containers (flowing bins). The model is not case-specific and its validation is underway. The validation will also permit to define to applicability limits but it will also contribute in verifying the universality of the adimensional number proposed by the author in a previous publication. The findings would allow defining a more objective way to express the behaviour of flowing powders. Another isotherm is the Freundlich isotherm derived from assumptions that the adsorption system includes different types of non uniform surfaces mainly heterogeneous surfaces (Fogler, 2006). The most recognized form of Freundlich model is. Adsorption Capacity of Raw Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass onto Methylene Blue Dye in Aqueous Solution Article Full-text available Nov 2011 Nur Zalikha Rebitanim Wan Azlina Wan Ab Amran Salleh Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) biomass was collected and characterized using BET and SEM. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of methylene blue (MB) dye on EFB were also studied. The equilibrium adsorption data were compared using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and fits well with Langmuir isotherm which indicates that the EFB adsorption is homogeneous and monolayer.

Adsorption of methylene blue dye was found to be best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption capacity of EFB in this study illustrates that it has the potential to remove dyes in the waste water industry. Heat transfer study of a uranium based getter bed for hydrogen storage Article Full-text available Mar 2015 Rupsha Bhattacharyya Kalyan Bhanja Sadhana Mohan View. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode RMPC untuk menentukan beberapa MPC lokal untuk digunakan pada metode MMPC. Model RATP digunakan dalam penelitian ini dengan jaket pendingin (Bequette, 1998; Fogler, 2006). Reaksi yang digunakan adalah reaksi eksotermik orde pertama irreversible dengan sistem multi inputmulti output (MIMO) 2x2.. PENGENDALIAN REAKTOR ALIR TANGKI BERPENGADUK MENGGUNAKAN REPRESENTATIVE MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL Article Full-text available Oct 2015 Abdul Wahid Fazza Imanuddin Harsya Ramadhani Permasalahan terbesar dalam pengendalian reaktor alir tangki berpengaduk adalah sistem yang sangat tidak linear dan multivariabel. Sistem pengendalian konvensional tidak dapat mengkontrol sistem semacam ini dengan optimal, sehingga kemurnian produk yang dihasilkan rendah. Multiple Model Predictive Control (MMPC) digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah pengendalian proses yang nonlinear dan melibatkan banyak variabel. Beberapa MPC lokal digunakan pada MMPC diperoleh dengan metode yang baru dikembangkan, Representative Model Predictive Control (RMPC). Penelitian ini menggunakan model reaktor alir tangki berpengaduk yang disimulasikan dengan perangkat lunak MATLAB. Variabel yang dimanipulasi adalah suhu inlet pendingin dan konsentrasi umpan. Sedangkan variabel yang dikontrol adalah komposisi produk. Untuk perubahan set point konsentrasi produk dari 8.5 sampai 8.6; disarankan menggunakan MMPC 4,1,2. View Show abstract.

Developpement de systemes de liberation d'un peptide derive de la BMP-9 pour favoriser la formation osseuse Thesis Full-text available Dec 2010 Eric Bergeron Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) can induce osteoblast differentiation during bone formation and repair. BMP-2 is currently the most used BMP in delivery systems (DSs) for growth factors. Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, BMP-2 and type I collagen are already used in orthopaedic clinical applications. Recently, studies demontrated that BMP-9 has a higher osteogenic potential than BMP-2. However, high purification costs of BMPs limit their use. So, alternatives such as peptides derived from BMPs are studied. This study first compares in vitro the effects of equimolar concentrations (1.92 nM) of BMP-2, BMP-9 or pBMP-9 on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 in serum-free medium. Like BMP-2, BMP-9 and pBMP-9 both activate Smads signaling pathway within 1h. In contrary to BMP-2, the Smad phosphorylation induced by BMP-9 and pBMP-9 is not prevented by noggin, an extracellular antagonist of BMP-2. Moreover, BMP-9 and pBMP-9 increase dose dependently alkaline phosphatase activity, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation within 1 day. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis demonstrates that BMP-2, BMP-9 and pBMP-9 all activate the transcription of Runx2, Osterix, type I collagen a1 chain and Osteocalcin within 6 days. To favor efficiency of these molecules, DSs for BMP-9 or pBMP-9 using type I collagen gel or chitosan matrix have been studied. Collagen and chitosan DSs release in vitro within 1h about 35 and 80 of the initial dose of BMP-9 respectively. A slower release of pBMP-9 is observed in both DSs. The release of BMP-9 and pBMP-9 from both DSs follows Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics. Furthermore, collagen DS is less efficient than chitosan DS. Since BMPs can also influence adipogenic cell lineages, the effects of 3.

84 nM BMP-2, BMP-9 or pBMP-9 have been studied on human white preadipocytes (HWP).Incubation for 1h with BMPs or pBMP-9 activates the Smad pathway. These molecules also enhance the levels of the mRNA of the adipogenic markers aP2 and adipoQ and increase the number of lipid vesicles within 7 days in adipogenic differentiation (AD) serum-free medium containing ciglitazone. Thus, pBMP-9 seems a promising replacement for costly BMP in tissue engineering applications since this molecule can favor osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts and adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes in serum-free medium. All calculations performed with CSTRs assume uniform tank contents due to the assumption of well mixed contents. Thus the outflow composition and temperature will have the same composition and temperature as that of the content within the tank, which are functions of the inflow rate, reactor volume, the initial reactant concentration and the reactor temperature.. Optimal Process Operation by Using Economics Optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Thesis Nov 2013 Elrashid A N Idris Nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) is perhaps the most advanced feedback control technique that introduced a significant impact on the industrial chemical processes since it is capable to optimize and control the system simultaneously. Its abilities to handle multivariable control systems, to incorporate constraints into the control problem formulation and to enable the integration of economics optimizing criteria into the feedback control design are the most outstanding advantages among many others. Different nonlinear model predictive techniques were applied successfully to different control structures of a simulated nonlinear continuous stirred tank reactor with feed concentration disturbances and sensor noise, and to different control structures of a simulated pilot-scale continuous catalytic distillation column with plant-model mismatch and input and output noise.

Both of the considered case studies exhibit complex phenomena such as nonlinearity, non-minimum phase behaviour (NMP), input multiplicity and local minima. Input multiplicities for instance may lead to multiple solutions and to wrong control actions and the steady-state may be shifted to a sub-optimal operating point during the operation of the plant when the standard class of controllers with a regulation objective (conventional reference tracking NMPC) is used. Economics optimizing NMPC controllers to optimize and control the operations of a non-minimum phase continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the operations of a complex dynamics pilot-scale continuous catalytic distillation (CCD) process are intensively investigated. This direct economic optimization scheme is compared with a compromise scheme, the economics-oriented tracking controller. Different control structures are used to explore the potential benefits of the dynamic online economicsbased nonlinear control strategies. Online state and disturbance estimation is an integral part of the investigated NMPC control schemes particularly in the presence of disturbances and plant-model mismatch. Two conceptually different state and disturbance estimation techniques are used in this dissertation namely the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the nonlinear gain-scheduled observer, which is a modified version of the extended Luenberger observer (ELO). In this dissertation, global as well as local optimization algorithms are used. The global optimization algorithm is used primarily to locate the optimal region (i.e. good initial guess) to a local optimization algorithm and to avoid those potentially optimal parts of the space from being overlooked. The local optimization algorithm finds the best point in that optimal region. The outcome of this work indicates that by using direct economics optimizing NMPC the plant economics can be handled better while guaranteeing the product specifications.

The economics-oriented tracking controller can also improve the economics of the process when more degrees of freedom than controlled variables are available, however, it can also violates the product specifications which necessitates the use of an extensive tuning procedure. Generally, the economics of the process can be enhanced when more degree of freedom are manipulated at the price of more complex optimization problems. The concept of the economics optimizing NMPC can straightforwardly be applied to similar chemical processes and the findings and conclusions deduced from this work are important for analogous chemical processes. This problem was detected a posteriori during the analysis of all the results. Power law and Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougens-Watson (LHHW) models were used to represent the kinetics of CO2 methanation. LHHW model displayed better representation of the kinetics and was chosen for modeling the CO2 methanation reaction in a plate type heat exchanger reactor. Comparison between experiments, 1D model, and 2D model proved the reliability of using internally coated tubular reactor for kinetic modeling of coated catalyst. This work also performed modeling of a plate type heat exchanger reactor with catalytically coated corrugated plates for CO2 methanation. Heat exchanger reactors with coated catalyst allow controlling the reaction temperature and thus, avoiding temperature runaway owing to the highly exothermic CO2 methanation reaction. The corrugated pattern created by the opposing corrugated plates of the plate heat exchanger reactor proved to be excellent for distributing the flow homogeneously inside each reaction channel and the entire reactor. Thus, plate type heat exchanger reactor with catalytically coated corrugated plates proved to be suitable alternative to plate heat exchanger reactors with microchannel plates. A significant portion of the fluid may channel through this pathway.

CFD module of particle tracing was established to measure particles diffusing through the packed bed. The study of Mean Resident Time (MRT) and E(t) function were investigated to identify the packing pattern performance. The results showed that the minimum value of the E(t), which means the flow behavior, was close to ideal plug flow behavior. MRT can be used to systematically identify the deviation from the ideal plug flow reactor of the three different packing patterns. This material was employed as a support for the cobalt catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS). During the catalyst synthesis, impregnation of cobalt nitrate aqueous solution caused a collapse in the structure and a drastic decline in the textural properties of the mesoporous alumina. Organic solvents such as acetone and ethanol were employed instead to realize their impact on the corresponding cobalt catalysts stability. The synthesized catalysts were characterized using BET, XRD, TEM, TPR, and H2 chemisorption. The catalysts prepared using organic solvents were found to retain the textural properties of the mesoporous alumina. The process conditions including temperature, pressure, and GHSV were optimized adopting Taghuchi experimental design. The physico-chemical properties of the synthesized catalysts were correlated with their performances in FTS. Development of a simulation and analysis tools for Chemical Reactors Article Full-text available Dec 2017 Jackson Gunorubon Somkenechukwu Mamah A reactor analysis and simulation tool (ASchem) for the design and performance analysis of batch, continuous stirred-tank and plug-flow reactors has been developed. The simulation tool is robust, allows for choice of reaction kinetics in liquid phase and has simplified graphical user interfaces. The tool also has unit converter, calculator, interpolator, graphical and tabular data output. The design and model equations of these reactors were encoded in a JAVA program.

Results from the simulation tool were compared with those obtained from the simulation of the same model equations using MATLAB (2009b) with literature data. The deviations obtained were minimal with an average precision of 0.0258, 0.0061 and 1.1923 for the batch, plug-flow and continuous stirred tank reactors respectively. It is defined as the ratio of the actual reaction rate to the rate if the reaction is not slowed by diffusion. 27. Agglomerates in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Electrodes: Part II. Transport Characterization Article Jan 2018 J ELECTROCHEM SOC Firat C. Cetinbas Rajesh Ahluwalia View Factors Affecting Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Production fromOil Palm Frond Juice by Cupriavidus necator (CCUG52238T) Data Full-text available Oct 2012 Hidayah Ariffin Mohd Noriznan Mokhtar Jailani Salihon Mohd Ali Haasan Factors influencing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) P(3HB) production by Cupriavidus necator CCUG52238T utilizing oil palm frond (OPF) juice were clarified in this study. Effects of initial medium pH, agitation speed, and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 concentration on the production of P(3HB) were investigated in shake flasks experiments using OPF juice as the sole carbon source. In the meanwhile, the effect of dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) on P(3HB) production was investigated in a 2-L bioreactor. P(3HB) produced from OPF juice had a tensile strength of 40 MPa and elongation at break of 8 demonstrated that P(3HB) produced from renewable and cheap carbon source is comparable to those produced from commercial substrate. View Show abstract Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) Education: From the Era of Slide Rule to the Digital Age Article Full-text available Nov 2008 H. Scott Fogler Bryson Cutlip The complexity level of CRE problems that students work and study in both undergraduate and graduate courses has increased very dramatically in the last 40 years.

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